What is a Disability?

Definiton of Disability--- https://adata.org/FAQbooklet
The ADA defines a disability as:

An individual is considered to have a "disability" if s/he has a physical or mental impairment that:

1- substantially limits a major life activity
2- has a record of such an impairment, or 
3- is regarded as having such an impairment.

Persons discriminated against because they have a known association or relationship with an individual with a disability also are protected.
1- The first part of the definition makes clear that the ADA applies to persons who have impairments and that these must substantially limit major life activities.  There are two non-exhaustive lists of examples of major life activities:

caring for oneself,  performing manual tasks, seeing, hearing, eating, sleeping, walking, standing, sitting, reaching, 
lifting, bending, speaking, breathing, learning, reading, concentrating, thinking, 
communicating, interacting with others, and working.
Major life activities also include the operation of major bodily functions, including: 
the immune systemspecial sense organs and skinnormal cell growthand digestivegenitourinarybowel, bladderneurologicalbrain, respiratorycirculatorycardiovascularendocrinehemic, lymphatic,
musculoskeletal, and reproductive functions.
Examples of specific impairments that should easily be concluded to be disabilities include: 

deafness, blindness, intellectual disability, partially or completely missing limbs, mobility impairmentsautism, cancer, cerebral palsy, diabetes, epilepsyHIV infectionmultiple sclerosismuscular dystrophymajor depressive disorderbipolar disorder, post-traumatic stress disorderobsessive-compulsive disorder, and schizophrenia.
2- The second part of the definition protecting individuals with a record of a disability would cover, for example, a person who has recovered from cancer or mental illness.
3- Under the third part of the definition, a covered entity has regarded an individual as having a disability if it takes an action prohibited by the ADA (e.g., failure to hire, termination, or demotion) based on an individual’s impairment or on an impairment the covered entity believes the individual has, unless the impairment is transitory (lasting or expected to last for six months or less) and minor.

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